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Independence National Movement

Sudan presented since 1896 to the invasion by colonial Britain, Egypt and late year Since 1898, Sudan became under the British occupation of Egypt, except the Darfur region, which was occupied in 1916. Under the bilateral agreement the administration to rule the Sudan, signed by Britain and Egypt on Jan. 1, 1899, this Agreement and become a constitution, who ruled Sudan until the year 1953 without the participation of the people of Sudan or saw them. Sudan remained under bilateral colonial administration (Britain and Egypt), although Britain's supreme control. Even won Sudan's independence on the first of January 1956.


During the colonial era and in the first phase (1896 - 1918 AD) fought and resisted the Sudanese in order to repel the invading forces and protecting the homeland where he witnessed Sudan's armed resistance while entering the colonist ground in Sudan and held a number of military battles between the Sudanese forces, including the Battle of Hndob eastern Sudan 1891, battle rubbing northern Sudan in June 1896 AD, a battle Nekhaila near Atbara city April 8, 1898 m, battle of Omdurman September 2, 1898 AD, a battle or Dbikrat November 24, 1898 AD, a battle Druty near 1910 El Geneina against attempts by the French invasion to occupy Darfur, battle Bnerjeeh near the city of El Fasher, May 22, 1916 AD.
In the second phase (1918 m - 1924) of struggle and resistance against the colonial power for freedom and tyranny, known phase associations and the White Revolution Brigade where he began Sudanese growth of cities and a sense of national feeling has emerged awareness among the educated class of the Sudanese. And influenced by what is happening in regional ocean and the neigh boring countries of Sudan from the revolutionary movement after the First World War, especially Egypt (Egypt's 1919 revolution). Vencoh clubs school graduates (alumni club) since 1918, making their voices heard their awareness of national security. There were some press releases (newspaper civilization of Sudan) and writings and press articles (articles HussainShareef 1919 for national revival) became the voice of the learners through literary activity, social and cultural.
The genesis of the Sudanese Assembly of the Union in 1920 in Omdurman and members of the students and graduates of the Gordon College is the first political organization in the modern history of Sudan is Obeid Haj Secretary-leader of the movement and Mvla. Then be a new organization is white, Major General Assembly in early 1924 and its founders fighter bridges LatifObaid pilgrims Secretary and Saleh Abdul Qadir and Hassan SalehAlmtabjy and Hussain Sharif and had its branches in provinces and included along with the educated class craftsmen and workers and farmers was the main aim of the Sudan Liberation from the bondage of the colonial usurper and the achievement of full unity between the two brotherly Egypt and Sudan. The Assembly prominent role in the explosion of events in 1924 to do demonstrations and distributing pamphlets against the British in each of Omdurman, Khartoum and Port Sudan and Udmdny and white and Shendi and Atbara and other Sudanese cities and arrested members of the White Brigade Association. In the eighth year of the August 1924 rebellion War College in Khartoum, students and they went out in a demonstration against the British which cited a group of students, including fighter AbdalvdilAlmaz and Oualemlazem Hassan FadlallahMawla. English authorities and was able to put out all these events and began to stage a severe repression of any activity against a rival and have issued varying provisions for the leadership and members of the White Revolution Brigade. British administration and taken in Sudan evacuation of staff and the Egyptian forces from Sudan in Ooakharaam 1924 and formed the Sudan Defence Force in 1925 to replace the Egyptian forces. And a positive agreement in 1936 between Britain and Egypt once again the Egyptian forces to Sudan.
The third phase (1925 - 1937 AD) and the colonial administration announced a policy of suppressing any attempts at resistance and national struggle. And it characterized this stage of the history of the national movement growing activity of intellectual seminars in the fields of literature and culture through literary clubs activity in a number of cities, the most famous father Rove founded by pioneers KhaderHamad Hassan and Hussein Osmad toil and HammadTawfiq Ismail Atabani and Ibrahim Yusuf Suleiman and Ibrahim Anis and the Association of Wad Madani Society founded by Mahi Mohamed Khair Society siblings and their patrons and Ismail al-AzhariYahya best and Mubarak Zarrouk good Awwadallah and Ibrahim Mufti and BabacarQabbany. It was for these associations role in the growth of national sentiment homeland and Esra literary and artistic movement and publishing press through press releases, which was founded in the period after the lifting of censorship newspapers in 1935. Such as New Dawn magazine, which was founded by Arafat Mohammed Abdullah in 1935, the newspaper of the Nile 1935, the newspaper Voice of Sudan, 1935, the newspaper Sudan.

The fourth stage in the history of the National Movement (1938- 1945) was the Conference of the graduates have an important role at this stage of the national resistance. Founded alumni conference in 1938, which is a federation of graduates Gordon and technical institutes, schools and college. Was chosen as Mr. Ibrahim Ahmed as the president of the Conference of the graduates and Mr. Ismail al-Azhari general secretary of him and in the memorandum filed by graduates of the General Conference of the governor of the English in 1942, was the basis for the work of the Political Conference clash with the colonizer and England emerged many characters Sudanese political leaders, who had a role in the leadership of the resistance national and demands that call for self-determination for Sudan and the evacuation of the colonial and independence. As a result of variations and multiple schools of thought within the corridors of the conference the Sudanese political parties have emerged as siblings Party was founded in 1943 and the Umma Party in 1945 as a number of political movements it emerged and active work of the trade unions and was the national parties and the trade union movement's role at this stage in the resistance and the struggle for freedom and independence in addition to external influences (World war II and the events in Egypt has an important role in the internal interaction visit awareness and a sense of national Sudanese towards the fate of the Sudan report and the evacuation of the colonizer and as a result of continuous pressure colonized responded to engage the Sudanese groups in running the country through the northern Sudan Consultative Council, which was founded in 1944 and Assembly legislature, which established in 1948 and continued escalation in the situation towards the goal the country's independence from colonialism obnoxious even been signed autonomy in the 1953 agreement.
The fifth stage of the history of the National Movement (1953 m - 1955) called the transition under the Convention on Governance Self-signed by Britain and Egypt in February 1953 entered Sudan in the transitional phase could Sudanese during the formation and composition of the legislative, executive and military organs of the state and Sudanization leadership positions as a vacation Constitution temporary Sudan on December 19, 1955 of members of parliament decided and consensus of all members of the progress of the note by setting a date of Sudan's independence in the first of January 1956 to the governments of Britain, Egypt and the request to admit it and agreed both the British government and the Egyptian government to recognize the independence of Sudan. Officially celebrated on the morning of January 1, 1956 of the independence of Sudan, where the ceremony was held scientific landing Britain, Egypt and Sudan flag above the mast Republican Palace. Addressing Prime Minister Ismail al-Azhari Crowds gathered on that day to celebrate independence.

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